Firstly, this starts with European Standards (EN14781:2005 since you ask), which were passed without a problem. When it comes to wheels, this tests for lateral & radial true (how “round” your wheel is). The wheel must also withstand a sideways force of 250N being applied to it for at least a minute, without buckling or permanently bending by more than 1mm.
Next, we went through testing to gain UCI approval. Here, a wheel (without a tyre fitted) must withstand an impact with energy of 40J without sustaining any damage or being knocked out of true.
A 40J impact is roughly equivalent to a 10kg weight being dropped from a height of about ½ a metre. It’s designed to simulate the sort of impact you might encounter in a crash or hitting a kerb. Again, another pass for Parcours, meaning all Parcours wheelsets are now UCI-approved.